While many health claims have been made regarding these singing bowls, science shows they can induce deep states of relaxation, and wellness. They have been used in holistic healing and psychotherapeutic arts extensively. Some people use the bowls and bells to bring about a state of calmness when receiving medical treatments, as various sound and music practices have been shown to be quite effective before, during and after surgery, for instance. Small Tibetan bowls such as these can be placed and sounded directly on the body, or on one's chakras, carrying their vibrations directly into tissue or etheric field, for deeper stimulation of their relaxing sounds and harmonies. Gently and steadily rubbing wooden mallets along the rims of these sacred instruments produces tones and overtones which are said to harmonize with the elements and beings in the subtle realms, as well. Bowls can also be used on the body, in patterns around the aura field, on the chakras, or in healing spirals.